Assessment for unusual fears in those with autism deemed “critical” by a study
Many children experience fears on their road to independence from birth onward and as they learn to engage with the world around them. Fear of dogs, bugs, thunderstorms, or just plain old fear of the dark are pretty common for most children at some point in their lives. Unusual fears, however, have long been recognized as one of the characteristics for many of our children on the spectrum, but little research had been done on the topic since it was first recognized 70 years ago by the “father of child psychiatry” Dr. Leo Kanner in his paper Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact . In his paper, Dr. Kanner interviewed a number of children with autism, and noted that they “reacted with horror” to specific loud noises or moving objects…including tricycles, swings, elevators, vacuum cleaners, running water, gas burners, mechanical toys, egg beaters, and that “even the wind…could bring about a major panic”.
In a study published in Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders is looking into the issue more thoroughly. The study looked at over a thousand children, and found that 41% had what was deemed an unusual fear. The most common fear was one of toilets, followed by mechanical things, heights and weather. The study concluded that events that most children can ignore, or don’t notice, can distress those with autism to the point where it impairs functioning.
“Children with autism perceive, experience, and react to the world differently than children without autism. What is tolerable for most children (e.g., clouds in the sky, a change in activity or routine, sensory input, or a performance request) might be terrifying, distressing, or infuriating for a child with autism.”
Assessment for unusual and common fears deemed “critical” by study
The study found that most children with autism experience common and unusual fears, and that those fears have a role in further impairing functioning. Its finding was that clinical assessment was essential for those with autism, as there is proven and effective treatments available to help most of them. Having to face fear over daily objects or events can be a root source of anxiety, and anxiety (along with sensory overload) is one of the leading causes of autistic meltdowns.
While dealing with your child in a state of panic can cause despair for parents, don’t lose hope. Most children can learn to manage their fears if given the right tools, and help.
Some ways to help your child with autism manage their fears
- Learn to recognize when your child is afraid, and what their fear triggers are. That famous line: if you’ve seen one child with autism, then you’ve seen one child with autism works here. Each child is going to have different fears, and they might express fear quite differently from you or other children. Look for heightened behaviours or signs of stress like repetitive movements, etc. Each child will be different, so you will have to learn to read yours.
- Acknowledge their fear. While it might seem irrational to you, to your child it’s very real. Telling them that it’s “just a vacuum”, or “just a heating vent” is not going to help your child when that vacuum or heating vent is triggering a panic – I’m unsafe – response. Let them know that you understand they are afraid, and that you could see why it might be frightening.
- If you can, investigate the fear in small doses. “Let’s walk up to the vent together”, “how about if I walk up to the vent, and then you can join me if you want to”. Build confidence over time, but take it slowly.
- If you can’t, try to mitigate the fear. If it’s a thunderstorm, maybe they need a safe place, or special noise dampening earphones. If it’s something you can avoid and that’s the better option for the moment, avoid it.
- Find ways that work for your child to help manage stressful moments. There are a list of resources at the bottom of this post, and different things work for everyone. Sometimes a hand held video game helps to soothe or music. For some children it’s a “stress toy” or fidget, etc. Whatever you would normally do to help alleviate anxiety can help with fear.
- Model ahead of time. Let them see charts, or try out the action or idea before they are expected to do it. Sometimes role playing what will happen helps if the fear is over going to a new place or doing a specific activity.
- Don’t be afraid to seek professional help. There are many therapists and therapies that work well for dealing with both common and unusual fears.
For further reading, have a look at:
Attacking Anxiety – A Step-by-Step Guide to an Engaging Approach to Treating Anxiety and Phobias in Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities
Overcoming Anxiety in Children and Teens
What to Do When You Worry Too Much: A Kid’s Guide to Overcoming Anxiety
Editorial Policy: Autism Awareness Centre believes that education is the key to success in assisting individuals who have autism and related disorders. Autism Awareness Centre’s mission is to ensure our extensive autism resource selection features the newest titles available in North America. Note that the information contained on this web site should not be used as a substitute for medical care and advice.
My son has been out of school after being bullied and physically hurt by the perpetrator since the beginning of December. We hired an attorney and the settlement agreement was signed the week before schools were shut down due to COVID19. As part of the agreement he was scheduled to begin a new school the week of the closures. I had to have the cable disconnected due to him watching the news about COVID19 (no shortage of news these days). Despite designing a unit lesson plan for him about viruses and COVID19, he is terrified to go anywhere. Add the rioting and what news he is able to gather from lostening to conversations or asking his brother (now no one will tell him anything other than the weather forecast) he is terrified of African Americans in masks. Given the facial mask guidance, there is no way to avoid this scenerio. I walk him throigh everything he knows to be true from his own experience however when we are out he just panics to the point that when he sees an African American in a mask he freezes and starts to cry.
Michelle, I think what you are describing here sounds like trauma from the bullying and abuse incident. This trauma has now manifested itself in other fears around COVID-19. This is really out of my area of expertise and you will probably need to engage the services of a mental health professional. I am not sure where you are located so I can’t look into services for you that may be helpful in your area.
Has anyone had any luck with phobias of bugs and going outside? We are currently in lockdown, and due to there being no school routine (we had just got into a great routine) my 6yo son doesn’t want to go outside. To the point where he will have a meltdown due to a crippling debilitating phobia of being stung. This has only developed since lockdown began in March, but we are struggling and I’m so worried about his return to school. We have bug spray, and have allowed him to wear jumpers etc so he is fully covered, but in the middle of a heatwave this just isn’t an option.
Emma, when you say this has only started since lockdown, I think this phobia may be a sign of anxiety and stress. The anxiety has to be addressed. Do you have access to a mental health professional? I’ve written a lot of blogs on coping through COVID-19. Have a look at them because this may go away if you can alleviate the anxiety. There has been a lot of life changes since this lockdown began. Everyone copes in different ways.
I came across this article after typing “autism fear of wind” in my search bar. My 8-year-old son has a debilitating fear of the wind, to the point that he will be destructive and lash out with extreme aggression. We have gone on holiday where he has literally hidden under a sheet in the corner of the room. At other times, he has just balled and repeating over and over “oh my god” absolutely petrified! We have tried everything from breaking down the wind into Levels from 1 to 5, in order to have a conversation, we won’t go outside unless its Level 1 or 2 at this point. Sometimes it’s not windy, but just the odd breeze could still set him off. It is so hard because others can’t relate and therefore don’t understand, as is the case for many areas of being on the spectrum. I wish there were more experts researching into this because it can take hold of a child and ruin their lives, as well as the lives of those around them!!
I’ve had several people tell me they have children with a wind phobia. Sometimes it has to do with sound and having a headband or a tuque on helps. I can recommend this book – https://autismawarenesscentre.com/shop/behaviour/anxiety/attacking-anxiety-a-step-by-step-guide-to-an-engaging-approach-to-treating-anxiety-and-phobias-in-children-with-autism-and-other-developmental-disabilities/ . You may also need to seek professional help with this. My children both had extreme phobia around any animals – even a kitten. They’re in their 20’s now and although they are still cautious with big dogs, they are quite good around animals now. My daughter even volunteers at a cat shelter.
My daughter is terrified of all insects and bugs in general. I can’t get her active. All she wants to do is watch movies and play video games. Her phobia is becoming a health concern and I don’t know what to do.
There may be more to this than just an insect phobia. Read my article on PDA and see if she fits the profile – https://autismawarenesscentre.com/an-introduction-to-pathological-demand-avoidance-pda/
I had a hives breakout in 2018 and had to get Benadryl and steroid shots. I never responded positively to any medical procedures. Even a routine physical would trigger meltdowns that’s why I haven’t had one in years. The nurse told me I was being brave but obviously I wasn’t because I started flapping and rocking. I said to her “Do you not understand autism?”
my son has two phobias right now he is terrified of insects to the point i have to hold his hand when we go outside to prevent him from running in the street and if there is even a nat in my apartment he will loose it his other phobia is motorcycles every time a motorcycle goes buy he screams out of control and shakes his whole body in anger its been driving me crazy i dont know what to do
We’ve been through a long string of phobias, and they can be crippling. One by one we’ve tackled and conquered them, but it takes so much work, and another phobia always seems to come up and move in behind the last one. It’s good to read that this is shared by many others and good to read that researchers are looking into it.
If you haven’t lived with phobias, people don’t know how debilitating they can be. This is an area that needs research. Thank you for taking the time to write.